Cotton, ranching, and farming dominated the economy, with railroad construction after 1870 a major factor in the development of new cities away from rivers and waterways.
Santa Anna's invasion of the territory after putting down the rebellion in Zacatecas provoked the conflict of 1836.The Texian forces fought and won the Texas Revolution in 1835–1836.manufacture of pottery developed, and Native Americans increasingly depended on bison for survival.Obsidian objects found in various Texan sites attest of trade with cultures in present-day Mexico and the Rocky Mountains, as the material is not found locally.Texas declared its secession from the United States in 1861 to join the Confederate States of America.
Only a few battles of the American Civil War were fought in Texas; most Texas regiments served in the east.
Politically, Texas changed from the virtually one-party Democratic state achieved following disenfranchisement, to a highly contested political scene, until 2000 when it was solidly Republican.
The economy of Texas has continued to grow rapidly, becoming the second-largest state in population in 1994, and became economically highly diversified, with a growing base in new technology.
Texas lies at the juncture of two major cultural spheres of Pre-Columbian North America, the Southwestern and the Plains areas.
The area now covered by Texas was occupied by three major indigenous cultures, which had reached their developmental peak before the arrival of European explorers and are known from archaeology. They extracted Alibates flint from quarries in the panhandle region.
Agriculture and ranching gave way to a service-oriented society after the boom years of World War II.