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Davies argues that the apparent independence of the ordering of sayings in Thomas from that of their parallels in the synoptics shows that Thomas was not evidently reliant upon the canonical gospels and probably predated them.

Andrew · Barnabas · John · Mar Mari · The Martyrs Paul · Paul and Thecla Peter · Peter and Andrew Peter and Paul · Peter and the Twelve · Philip Pilate · Thaddeus · Thomas · Timothy Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca The Gospel According to Thomas is an early Christian non-canonical sayings gospel that many scholars believe provides insight into the oral gospel traditions.

It was discovered near Nag Hammadi, Egypt, in December 1945 among a group of books known as the Nag Hammadi library.

Theissen and Merz give sayings 31 and 65 as examples of this.

In the few instances where the version in Thomas seems to be dependent on the Synoptics, Koester suggests, this may be due to the influence of the person who translated the text from Greek into Coptic.

Prior to the Nag Hammadi library discovery, the sayings of Jesus found in Oxyrhynchus were known simply as Logia Iesu.

The corresponding Uncial script Greek fragments of the Gospel of Thomas, found in Oxyrhynchus are: The wording of the Coptic sometimes differs markedly from the earlier Greek Oxyrhynchus texts, the extreme case being that the last portion of logion 30 in the Greek is found at the end of logion 77 in the Coptic.

While the Gospel of Thomas does not directly point to Jesus' divinity, it also does not directly contradict it, and therefore neither supports nor contradicts gnostic beliefs.

When asked his identity in the Gospel of Thomas, Jesus usually deflects, ambiguously asking the disciples why they do not see what is right in front of them, similar to some passages in the canonical gospels like John and Luke .

Some form of the work was clearly in circulation by the end of the 4th century when testimonies begin.

B 35) date to the 11th century, although there are partial Grek witnesses dating from the 10th. Some sections, particularly the originally independent Hymn of the Pearl, presuppose conditions in the Parthian period, which ended with the establishment of the Sassanian Empire in 226 C.

Scholars have proposed a date as early as 40 AD or as late as 140 AD, depending upon whether the Gospel of Thomas is identified with the original core of sayings, or with the author's published text, or with the Greek or Coptic texts, or with parallels in other literature.