Scherr Dartmouth College Peter Graves University of Edinburgh Robert C. Andrews, Professor Emeritus Helena Buescu Universidade de Lisboa Rosemary Lloyd Indiana University Charles Capper University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Robert P. Furst University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Lawrence Rosenwald Wellesley College George Go¨mo¨ri Cambridge University Nicolaas Rupke Institut fu¨r Wissenschaftsgeschichte Philip Gossett University of Chicago Barry P.
R64E53 2003 700′.4145′03—dc21 2003042406 ISBN 1-57958-361-X (2-volume set) ISBN 1-57958-423-3 (Volume 1) ISBN 1-57958-422-5 (Volume 2) BOARD OF ADVISERS Tallis Barker Oxford University and The Open University Anthony Levi University of St. Fnoble Cornell University Anthony Phelan Oxford University Lilian R.Pierre Lasserre (1907) in France and Irving Babbitt (1919) in the United States, for example, typified a deep skepticism: whatever their fascination or beauty, the works of the period were deemed as often expressions of a profound human failure, the products of the isolated ego’s inability to relate to others or to the world.In the early twenty-first century, interest has turned increasingly to the relationship between the Enlightenment and the Romantic era (continuity/rupture), to the era’s internationalism (the international significance of the French Revolution Jean-Jaogues Rousseau, and Sir Walter Scott, are among the most obvious examples), and to the close interaction among the arts, and among the arts and intellectual and political contexts (in Germany, for example, the links among Carl Gustav Carus, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, G. A good deal of contemporary interest is also based on the belief that the Romantic era’s central concerns (notably the limits of rationality, and the urge to transcend boundaries) have a direct bearing on our self-styled postmodern world, which some see as having witnessed the final “failure of the Enlightenment project.” The Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era is a direct response to this ever-widening scope of study, and in its coverage of arts and ideas in Britain, continental Europe, and the Americas, it is unique.This ambitious range often made the selection of entries difficult, and even a hardened conscience would have been troubled by sins of omission.At their best, such works were seen as childlike in their sense of wonder and their emotional intensity; at their worst, as pathological and life-denying.
(Such views were elaborations of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s famous animadversion: “The classical is health, the Romantic sickness.”) ix x INTRODUCTION Attitudes were to change radically, however, as a range of theories, methodologies, and critical approaches, such as archetypal criticism, deconstruction, feminism, Freudian psychoanalysis, Marxism, new historicism, phenomenology, queer theory, semiotics, and structuralism, were employed in several disciplines to produce a wealth of new insights and perspectives, particularly in the study of literature. Hegel, Friedrich Ho¨lderlin, Novalis, Friedrich Wilhelm Jospeh von Schelling, August Wilhelm and Frierich von Schlegel, Friedrich Danniel Ernst Schleiermacher, the French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte’s career, the rise of nationalism, science, landscape painting, music, and so on).
The intention was to choose a time span that allowed the inclusion of key features and developments, not to adhere to a strict and narrow chronology.
The end date was a little less contentious, given that the midnineteenth century was the era that saw the failure of so many uprisings across Europe.
Its aim is to provide a broad-ranging guide to the profound changes in thought, sensibility, and expression that occurred during this era, a revolutionary period that saw many of the values and assumptions of the Enlightenment redefined, challenged, or rejected, and whose principal concerns—liberty, the individual, revolution and nationalism, nature, history and human identity—provided the foundation for the modern world.
Solomon University of Texas at Austin Matthias Konzett Yale University Kathleen Wheeler Cambridge University v CONTENTS Introduction List of Entries ix xiii List of Entries by Subject xxi List of Entries by National Developments Notes on Contributors Entries A to Z Index xxxvii 1 1247 vii xxix INTRODUCTION Aims and Scope The Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760–1850 is a cultural encyclopedia covering the last decades of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century in Britain, continental Europe, and the Americas.
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