Because the guidelines and lessons learned vary greatly depending on the specific mode of data collection, we begin with general considerations relevant for data collection in any mode and then provide further guidelines and lessons learned in three subsequent chapters for the main modes of data collection used for 3MC surveys as follows: For a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of specific modes, key factors involved in mode choice, and whether to standardize mode across locations, see Study Design and Organizational Structure.
Some countries officially prohibit survey research (e.g., North Korea) or severely restrict data collection on some topics.While a survey conducted in a single country might face one or more of the challenges mentioned above, the probability of encountering multiple hurdles is much higher in a large-scale 3MC study.For example, in an early survey of mass media communication behavior in the Middle East, experts predicted that data collection would not be possible in Arab countries because the experts believed the populace would think that the interviewers were agents of the government.The experts also suggested that women could not be hired as interviewers and that it would be impossible to survey previously unsurveyed groups, such as the nomadic Bedouin tribes.The extent to which differences between survey statistics from different countries, regions, cultures, domains, time periods, etc., can be attributable to differences in population true values (Johnson & Mohler, 2010).
In other words, whether the concepts are comparable or not.This may be assessed by checking the correlation between observations from that question with observations from other questions expected on theoretical grounds to be related." data-tiptheme="tipthemesquarewhite"data-tipdelayclose="500"data-tipeventout="mouseout"data-tipmouseleave="false"data-tipcontent="html" class="jqeasytooltip jqeasytooltip21" id="jqeasytooltip21"First, applying a combination of research methodologies to study the same phenomenon facilitates the validation of data through cross verification, while each method counterbalances the potential limitations of the others).Qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods can be used iteratively to strengthen both approaches.See A study where elements are repeatedly measured over time." data-tiptheme="tipthemesquarewhite"data-tipdelayclose="500"data-tipeventout="mouseout"data-tipmouseleave="false"data-tipcontent="html" class="jqeasytooltip jqeasytooltip50" id="jqeasytooltip50"2.1 The Tamang Family Research Project, conducted in Nepal in 1987 to 1988, studied two communities to see how family structure influenced fertility decisions.By adding less-structured ethnographic interviews to the highly structured survey, the investigators discovered that a previously unknown factor, the Small Farmers Development Program (SFDP), had a significant influence on fertility decisions 2.2 The event history calendar method is easily adaptable to fit cultural needs.For example, qualitative, less structured interviews may permit a more positive interaction between the interviewer and the respondent increasing the of the information the respondent provides as well as his or her willingness to provide such information.