It dominated Peru and extended as far as Bolivia and central Chile, as well as Ecuador.
To communicate with each other they developed stone-paved highways spanning thousands of miles used by messengers.
Regionalism is the most destructive force that has continued to ravage Ecuador, since the rise of segregated towns.
Each region is divided according to its own unique geography, creating a sense of individual regional pride.
After years of fierce resistance, the Cañari succumbed to the Inca expansion, and were assimilated loosely under the Inca Empire.
The Inca were an advanced society which originated in Peru, and established a great empire within one century.
The majority of Ecuador's population is , a mixture of both European (Andalusian and Castilian Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry.
The other 10% of Ecuador's population originate east of the Atlantic Ocean, predominantly from Spain, Italy, Lebanon, France and Germany.
In celebration of his victory, Tupac Yupanqui ordered a great city to be built, Tomebamba, where is the present Cuenca, there he built a palace called Pumapungo over the ancient Cañari town.
When he died in 1526, Huayna Capac divided the empire between his two sons, Atahualpa and Huáscar.
Pizarro ambushed the ruler, forced him to collect an enormous ransom, and then executed him.
Spanish governors ruled Ecuador for nearly 300 years, first from the viceroyalty of Lima, then later from the viceroyalty of Gran Colombia.
These messengers passed each other records of the empire's status, which are sometimes thought to have been encoded in a system of knots called quipu.