During the eighteenth century, the city and region was roughly on the border between the Khanate of Kokand and Qing Empire.
It was then absorbed as part of Russian Empire in the 1850s.
The Kazakh state and nation were founded here, close to Almaty.The Dzungar invaded, dominating the Kazakh people for a period.To defend its empire, Russia built Fort Verniy near the Zailiysky Alatau mountain range between the Bolshaya and Malenkaya Almatinka rivers.Construction began on 4 February 1854 and was nearly completed by the autumn of that year.At that time, Almaty became one of the trade, craft and agricultural centres on the Silk Road. The city was first mentioned as Almatu in books from the 13th century.
In the 15th–18th centuries, the city was in decline as trade activities were decreasing on this part of the Silk Road.
From 1936 to 1991 it was the capital of Kazakh SSR.
After Kazakhstan became independent in 1991, Almaty continued as the capital until 1997, when Astana was designated a return to the historic capital.
Almaty remains the largest, most developed, and most ethnically and culturally diverse city in Kazakhstan.
Due to development by the Soviet Union and relocation of workers and industries from European areas of the Soviet Union during World War II, the city has a high proportion of ethnic Russians and Ukrainians.
There was a transition to a settled way of living, the development of farming and handicrafts, and the emergence of a number of towns and cities in the territory of Zhetysu.