Higher traffic levels appear to be driven by larger numbers of city-pairs being served, as well as by more passengers traveling along given routes.
To demonstrate the quantitative implication of the estimates, two liberalization scenarios in the Middle East are evaluated.
Progress can be painstakingly slow and marred by setbacks.
LIFE in Lagos can be hard, even for a young, salaried professional.The long working hours, the endless traffic and the pressure to keep up appearances in a city that idolises wealth often leave people exhausted by the weekends, which are packed with lavish weddings and lengthy church services. Tinder, a dating app where users reject or select potential partners by swiping left or right, has not proved as popular in Lagos as it is with time-poor young people elsewhere.This paper uses detailed data on worldwide passenger aviation to estimate the effect of air transport policy on international air traffic.The policy variable is a quantitative measure of the commitments under international agreements.Activists in the countries that are the focus of this report must contend with state hostility, to varying degrees.
Many governments in the region reject the concepts of “sexual orientation” and “gender identity” altogether.In Lebanon courts have rejected an interpretation of “unnatural offenses” as including same-sex sexual acts (although the relevant court cases have not created binding legal precedent).In Morocco courts have convicted perpetrators of SOGI-based violence.Faced with official intransigence, some activists choose to work outside state structures: their activism focuses on community-building and attitudinal change.Others have taken on their governments, successfully pushing for incremental change in various forms.For example, in Lebanon and Tunisia state institutions have accepted calls to end forced anal examinations, after pressure from local and international activists as well as treaty bodies.