Balkancam

and THE BRITISH AMERICA ASSURANCE CO., Toronto 850 THE INTERNATIONAL NICKEL COMPANY, New York 851 NOVA SCOTIA STEEL & COAL CO., LTD., New Glasgow 852 CANADA PERMANENT MORTGAGE CORPORATION, Toronto.. AMES & CO., Municipal Debentures, Toronto 854 THE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FORESTERS, Toronto 854 THE ROSS RIFLE CO., Quebec 855 HOTEL BELMONT, New York 856 GLASGOW, BROOK & CO., The Chronicles of Canada, Toronto.... S2 1,766.216 43 Ind Asfl'n Saskatchewan Alberta ob 467,048.61 802,798.20 *228.'5i5«.24 11,606.90 800.000.00 666 948 61 Brit. The manage- ment of the Fund was not without difficulties — apart from the permanent one of raising more and still more money. Its early initiative had, in 1914, obtained the splendid Fund for a Hospital Ship which totalled 3,107 and which, after being handed over to the care of H. Eventually the Army Council received 0,000 and purchased with it 40 motor ambul- ance cars for use at the Front or in England while the Naval authorities accepted 2,000 for expenditure in building the Can- adian Women's Block of the Hospital at Haslar, near Portsmouth. In the Holy Name of God, in the name of our Heavenly Father and Master, by the sacred blood of Christ, the price of human redemption, we adjure you, whom Divine Providence has chosen to govern the belligerent nations, finally to end this horrible bloodshed, which has now dishonoured Europe for a year . Hear our prayer, the paternal voice of the Vicar of the Eternal and Supreme Judge, to whom you must give account both of your public undertakings and of your private acts. All that could be expected from the wisest and most humane of men was done to avert the catastrophe by our statesmen in the Mother Country and now we have the comfort to know that we are engaged in an honourable struggle for right and justice and, we may add without rashness, for Christian civilization." Speaking at a great recruiting meeting in Toronto on Aug. Whalen was emphatic: "We find ourselves defending our homes, our institutions, and all that is dear to the individual and to the nation. In the whole history of the world there has never been such a burden borne before ... " Der Courier of Regina was, according to evidence collected by the Winnipeg Free Press (May 3rd), distinctly pro-German, Its issue of Apr.

Balkancam-86Balkancam-83Balkancam-54

Manitoba would need nothing; it had given magnificently. Moneys have poured into the treasury of the Fund until the total contributions have reached and exceeded ,000,000. Colonel Ryerson urged (1) that supplies should be sent through the recog- nized channel of the Society, and (2) that more motor-ambulance should be contributed. 18,734.00 Quebec 78,886.45 New Brunswick 17,307.65 Saskatchewan 72,606 . 24 British Columbia 54,596.63 Alberta 40,729.88 Total

Manitoba would need nothing; it had given magnificently. Moneys have poured into the treasury of the Fund until the total contributions have reached and exceeded $6,000,000. Colonel Ryerson urged (1) that supplies should be sent through the recog- nized channel of the Society, and (2) that more motor-ambulance should be contributed. 18,734.00 Quebec 78,886.45 New Brunswick 17,307.65 Saskatchewan 72,606 . 24 British Columbia 54,596.63 Alberta 40,729.88 Total $1,106,273.63 The City of Montreal undertook a special campaign and col- lected $100,000. As time passed on the German set- tlers seemed to accept the situation, generally, despite the pes- simistic view of F. German Clubs were allowed in various cities to be centres of enemy talk, if nothing worse, and it was not until rumours of rejoicings as to the Lusitania got abroad that those of Toronto, Montreal and Hamilton were closed.

British Columbia had been hard hit financially and would require $600,000 of which it could raise $400,000. Though anticipating a generous response I was hardly prepared for the magnificent manner in which the call was met. A meeting was held and Committees appointed with H. The Royal North- West Mounted Police, however, were omniprescient in the West; their energy, large powers, and known courage, prevented trouble even where a few isolated communities might have desired to create it; the disarming and registration policy for alien enemies helped to prevent any serious issue. Born at Dresden, Germany, and educated at 364 THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW Gottingen, he had lived in Canada since 1873 and been naturalized in or about 1896; he denied the statements absolutely but at once dropped out of various positions such as the Directorate of the Bank of Montreal and of the St. Canadian tolerance of things German during this year gradually lessened but for the first six months of the War it was akin to that of England herself.

It would be impossible there to raise all the money required though the whole Province was most thoroughly organ- ized with 56 municipalities under a system of voluntary contribu- tion. the Duke of Connaught issued a renewed appeal for aid to the Fund: Somewhat over a year ago, as President of the Canadian Patriotic Fund, I made an appeal to the people of the Dominion for funds to assist the fam- ilies of the gallant men who were going to the Front. Large numbers of Canadian doctors and nurses have been brought over, and Canadian women in Britain have been organized for ser- vice." Lady Beck of London, Ont., who about this time was in Britain and France, stated on her return that the C. Associated with the Society was the Canadian branch of the St. 19 for distributing seditious literature amongst the people and there were others like him; letters received from rural districts indicated from time to time secret meetings amongst German settlers; at Saskatoon on Aug. Rossbacz, a natural- ized German, was charged with using seditious language and, though the proof was not sufficient to convict. 27) noted that "there is a not inconsiderable amount of seditious talking going on in certain localities in the Province." In the same paper, on the 28th, Major J. Aikin urged sterner measures and said : ' ' There is too much open pro-German talk in Western Canada by Germans, Austrians, Swedes, German-Americans, Ger- man-Canadians, and pro-Germans generally." There was little excuse for anything of the kind because of the uniform generosity of treatment accorded these settlers by Gov- ernments and municipalities and employers. 20) writing from Calgary, who declared that "the German immigrants in the West are as a rule doggedly opposed to Great Britain and the nations fighting by her side." Elsewhere in Canada there were a few unpleasant incidents. 30) charged with treason for aiding ten Austrian reservists to escape across the border; H. Glaubitz, General Manager of the London Public Utilities Board, was compelled to resign his post for alleged aid to a German reservist in leaving the country ; H. Couzens, General Manager of the Toronto Hydro- Electric Commission, was charged in public letters, and by Orange deputations, with employing or favouring Germans and replied with a list showing 545 employees born in Canada, or other parts of the Empire, 16 in the United States and 1 in Holland ; Alfred Baumgarten, a well-known, re- spected and wealthy citizen of Montreal, was charged with pro- German sentiments.

"Besides having sent 40 per cent, of all the enlisted troops from Canada those Provinces would be able to raise all but $500,000 or $750,000 of the amount mentioned." In Alberta, however, where one man in every 27 had enlisted, there would be 4,000 families needing aid. A steady stream of gifts for the sick and wounded has since poured into this country, including a complete Hospital at Taplow, a coach for the Princess Christian Hospital train, 20 motor ambulances for the Front, gifts of money to the British Red Cross of about £15,000 and many thousand packages 326 THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW of comforts and clothing, the work of Canadian women. 26) that "personal enquiry made in France indicates situation misrepre- sented. Cannot approve of methods suggested for distribution of supplies." Late in January Lieut.-Col. Sixty-six Red Cross nurses and fifty male attendants had been sent overseas by the Society. Arrests were frequent for aiding enemy aliens to escape across the border; a certain proportion of German missioners, ministers and teachers, who had originally come from the States, were un- doubtedly seditious in an indirect, intangible and yet injurious way; at Luseland, Sask., a Lutheran minister named Stitzer was arrested on Aug.

"For the coming year $6,000,000 would be required and by Christmas the monthly expenditure would be about $500,000." It was officially announced on Oct. 1st a cam- paign would commence for $7,500,000 in popular contributions and that the amount of estimated expenditure in each Province for the year beginning Sept. To-day, there are 25,000 families, comprising, it is estimated, 80,000 individuals, dependent upon the Patriotic Fund. Employees' one-day pay, $29,912; a contribution of $28,000 from the C. The i balance of the Boer War Patriotic Fund, $75,972, was turned over to this organization. It was constituted as a branch of the International Red Cross Society, recognized by all civilized nations as the Society for collecting money and supplies in time of war for the relief of sick and wounded soldiers and sailors and of prisoners of war ; it co-operated with the Army Medi- cal Services by collecting supplementary supplies for the military hospitals, for use when a great battle should exhaust the ordinary supplies; it provided additional motor ambulances, field kitchens and hospital trains; it undertook the special care and equipment of the Duchess of Connaught Hospital at Cliveden with its 1,000 beds. During 1915 sup- plies in large amounts were forwarded from Canada and, fort- nightly, there went from. The Report of the Treasurer (Colonel Mason) up to Patriotic Organizations and War Contributions 325 this date showed a total of $279,170. ' ' As time passed, however, Germans were gradually eliminated from concerns de- pendent upon popular support; the National Club, Toronto, on May 12, passed a Resolution declaring that ''it was repugnant that any member of the Club of German or Austrian extraction, not thoroughly loyal to Britain, should remain a member, and that the Directors should take such steps as they deem necessary in the case of members in doubt, and exclude them if they could not give satisfactory evidence of their loyalty to the British Empire;" in Vancouver Baron C. He was found to hold a German passport and to have the military rank of Captain. 1st, that there were 1,300 Germans in his town with a number of old German soldiers, that it was the heart of an organized spy system connected with United States Germans, and that the local Deutsche Post was strongly pro-Ger- man ; in Vancouver Baron Alvo Von Alvensleben, one-time resident, financier and millionaire, had his affairs in liquidation during the year and looked after them from Seattle while his name figured in current United States investigations as of the "inner circle" of German- American interests and plans; in Toronto on Oct. Bridge, Vancouver, with $300,000 damage and of the Connaught Bridge there, which had cost $790,000, was alleged to have been caused by enemy* incendiaries.

||

Manitoba would need nothing; it had given magnificently. Moneys have poured into the treasury of the Fund until the total contributions have reached and exceeded $6,000,000. Colonel Ryerson urged (1) that supplies should be sent through the recog- nized channel of the Society, and (2) that more motor-ambulance should be contributed. 18,734.00 Quebec 78,886.45 New Brunswick 17,307.65 Saskatchewan 72,606 . 24 British Columbia 54,596.63 Alberta 40,729.88 Total $1,106,273.63 The City of Montreal undertook a special campaign and col- lected $100,000. As time passed on the German set- tlers seemed to accept the situation, generally, despite the pes- simistic view of F. German Clubs were allowed in various cities to be centres of enemy talk, if nothing worse, and it was not until rumours of rejoicings as to the Lusitania got abroad that those of Toronto, Montreal and Hamilton were closed. British Columbia had been hard hit financially and would require $600,000 of which it could raise $400,000. Though anticipating a generous response I was hardly prepared for the magnificent manner in which the call was met. A meeting was held and Committees appointed with H. The Royal North- West Mounted Police, however, were omniprescient in the West; their energy, large powers, and known courage, prevented trouble even where a few isolated communities might have desired to create it; the disarming and registration policy for alien enemies helped to prevent any serious issue. Born at Dresden, Germany, and educated at 364 THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW Gottingen, he had lived in Canada since 1873 and been naturalized in or about 1896; he denied the statements absolutely but at once dropped out of various positions such as the Directorate of the Bank of Montreal and of the St. Canadian tolerance of things German during this year gradually lessened but for the first six months of the War it was akin to that of England herself. It would be impossible there to raise all the money required though the whole Province was most thoroughly organ- ized with 56 municipalities under a system of voluntary contribu- tion. the Duke of Connaught issued a renewed appeal for aid to the Fund: Somewhat over a year ago, as President of the Canadian Patriotic Fund, I made an appeal to the people of the Dominion for funds to assist the fam- ilies of the gallant men who were going to the Front. Large numbers of Canadian doctors and nurses have been brought over, and Canadian women in Britain have been organized for ser- vice." Lady Beck of London, Ont., who about this time was in Britain and France, stated on her return that the C. Associated with the Society was the Canadian branch of the St. 19 for distributing seditious literature amongst the people and there were others like him; letters received from rural districts indicated from time to time secret meetings amongst German settlers; at Saskatoon on Aug. Rossbacz, a natural- ized German, was charged with using seditious language and, though the proof was not sufficient to convict. 27) noted that "there is a not inconsiderable amount of seditious talking going on in certain localities in the Province." In the same paper, on the 28th, Major J. Aikin urged sterner measures and said : ' ' There is too much open pro-German talk in Western Canada by Germans, Austrians, Swedes, German-Americans, Ger- man-Canadians, and pro-Germans generally." There was little excuse for anything of the kind because of the uniform generosity of treatment accorded these settlers by Gov- ernments and municipalities and employers. 20) writing from Calgary, who declared that "the German immigrants in the West are as a rule doggedly opposed to Great Britain and the nations fighting by her side." Elsewhere in Canada there were a few unpleasant incidents. 30) charged with treason for aiding ten Austrian reservists to escape across the border; H. Glaubitz, General Manager of the London Public Utilities Board, was compelled to resign his post for alleged aid to a German reservist in leaving the country ; H. Couzens, General Manager of the Toronto Hydro- Electric Commission, was charged in public letters, and by Orange deputations, with employing or favouring Germans and replied with a list showing 545 employees born in Canada, or other parts of the Empire, 16 in the United States and 1 in Holland ; Alfred Baumgarten, a well-known, re- spected and wealthy citizen of Montreal, was charged with pro- German sentiments. "Besides having sent 40 per cent, of all the enlisted troops from Canada those Provinces would be able to raise all but $500,000 or $750,000 of the amount mentioned." In Alberta, however, where one man in every 27 had enlisted, there would be 4,000 families needing aid. A steady stream of gifts for the sick and wounded has since poured into this country, including a complete Hospital at Taplow, a coach for the Princess Christian Hospital train, 20 motor ambulances for the Front, gifts of money to the British Red Cross of about £15,000 and many thousand packages 326 THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW of comforts and clothing, the work of Canadian women. 26) that "personal enquiry made in France indicates situation misrepre- sented. Cannot approve of methods suggested for distribution of supplies." Late in January Lieut.-Col. Sixty-six Red Cross nurses and fifty male attendants had been sent overseas by the Society. Arrests were frequent for aiding enemy aliens to escape across the border; a certain proportion of German missioners, ministers and teachers, who had originally come from the States, were un- doubtedly seditious in an indirect, intangible and yet injurious way; at Luseland, Sask., a Lutheran minister named Stitzer was arrested on Aug. "For the coming year $6,000,000 would be required and by Christmas the monthly expenditure would be about $500,000." It was officially announced on Oct. 1st a cam- paign would commence for $7,500,000 in popular contributions and that the amount of estimated expenditure in each Province for the year beginning Sept. To-day, there are 25,000 families, comprising, it is estimated, 80,000 individuals, dependent upon the Patriotic Fund. Employees' one-day pay, $29,912; a contribution of $28,000 from the C. The i balance of the Boer War Patriotic Fund, $75,972, was turned over to this organization. It was constituted as a branch of the International Red Cross Society, recognized by all civilized nations as the Society for collecting money and supplies in time of war for the relief of sick and wounded soldiers and sailors and of prisoners of war ; it co-operated with the Army Medi- cal Services by collecting supplementary supplies for the military hospitals, for use when a great battle should exhaust the ordinary supplies; it provided additional motor ambulances, field kitchens and hospital trains; it undertook the special care and equipment of the Duchess of Connaught Hospital at Cliveden with its 1,000 beds. During 1915 sup- plies in large amounts were forwarded from Canada and, fort- nightly, there went from. The Report of the Treasurer (Colonel Mason) up to Patriotic Organizations and War Contributions 325 this date showed a total of $279,170. ' ' As time passed, however, Germans were gradually eliminated from concerns de- pendent upon popular support; the National Club, Toronto, on May 12, passed a Resolution declaring that ''it was repugnant that any member of the Club of German or Austrian extraction, not thoroughly loyal to Britain, should remain a member, and that the Directors should take such steps as they deem necessary in the case of members in doubt, and exclude them if they could not give satisfactory evidence of their loyalty to the British Empire;" in Vancouver Baron C. He was found to hold a German passport and to have the military rank of Captain. 1st, that there were 1,300 Germans in his town with a number of old German soldiers, that it was the heart of an organized spy system connected with United States Germans, and that the local Deutsche Post was strongly pro-Ger- man ; in Vancouver Baron Alvo Von Alvensleben, one-time resident, financier and millionaire, had his affairs in liquidation during the year and looked after them from Seattle while his name figured in current United States investigations as of the "inner circle" of German- American interests and plans; in Toronto on Oct. Bridge, Vancouver, with $300,000 damage and of the Connaught Bridge there, which had cost $790,000, was alleged to have been caused by enemy* incendiaries.

,106,273.63 The City of Montreal undertook a special campaign and col- lected 0,000. As time passed on the German set- tlers seemed to accept the situation, generally, despite the pes- simistic view of F. German Clubs were allowed in various cities to be centres of enemy talk, if nothing worse, and it was not until rumours of rejoicings as to the Lusitania got abroad that those of Toronto, Montreal and Hamilton were closed.

British Columbia had been hard hit financially and would require 0,000 of which it could raise 0,000. Though anticipating a generous response I was hardly prepared for the magnificent manner in which the call was met. A meeting was held and Committees appointed with H. The Royal North- West Mounted Police, however, were omniprescient in the West; their energy, large powers, and known courage, prevented trouble even where a few isolated communities might have desired to create it; the disarming and registration policy for alien enemies helped to prevent any serious issue. Born at Dresden, Germany, and educated at 364 THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW Gottingen, he had lived in Canada since 1873 and been naturalized in or about 1896; he denied the statements absolutely but at once dropped out of various positions such as the Directorate of the Bank of Montreal and of the St. Canadian tolerance of things German during this year gradually lessened but for the first six months of the War it was akin to that of England herself.

It would be impossible there to raise all the money required though the whole Province was most thoroughly organ- ized with 56 municipalities under a system of voluntary contribu- tion. the Duke of Connaught issued a renewed appeal for aid to the Fund: Somewhat over a year ago, as President of the Canadian Patriotic Fund, I made an appeal to the people of the Dominion for funds to assist the fam- ilies of the gallant men who were going to the Front. Large numbers of Canadian doctors and nurses have been brought over, and Canadian women in Britain have been organized for ser- vice." Lady Beck of London, Ont., who about this time was in Britain and France, stated on her return that the C. Associated with the Society was the Canadian branch of the St. 19 for distributing seditious literature amongst the people and there were others like him; letters received from rural districts indicated from time to time secret meetings amongst German settlers; at Saskatoon on Aug. Rossbacz, a natural- ized German, was charged with using seditious language and, though the proof was not sufficient to convict. 27) noted that "there is a not inconsiderable amount of seditious talking going on in certain localities in the Province." In the same paper, on the 28th, Major J. Aikin urged sterner measures and said : ' ' There is too much open pro-German talk in Western Canada by Germans, Austrians, Swedes, German-Americans, Ger- man-Canadians, and pro-Germans generally." There was little excuse for anything of the kind because of the uniform generosity of treatment accorded these settlers by Gov- ernments and municipalities and employers. 20) writing from Calgary, who declared that "the German immigrants in the West are as a rule doggedly opposed to Great Britain and the nations fighting by her side." Elsewhere in Canada there were a few unpleasant incidents. 30) charged with treason for aiding ten Austrian reservists to escape across the border; H. Glaubitz, General Manager of the London Public Utilities Board, was compelled to resign his post for alleged aid to a German reservist in leaving the country ; H. Couzens, General Manager of the Toronto Hydro- Electric Commission, was charged in public letters, and by Orange deputations, with employing or favouring Germans and replied with a list showing 545 employees born in Canada, or other parts of the Empire, 16 in the United States and 1 in Holland ; Alfred Baumgarten, a well-known, re- spected and wealthy citizen of Montreal, was charged with pro- German sentiments.

"Besides having sent 40 per cent, of all the enlisted troops from Canada those Provinces would be able to raise all but 0,000 or 0,000 of the amount mentioned." In Alberta, however, where one man in every 27 had enlisted, there would be 4,000 families needing aid. A steady stream of gifts for the sick and wounded has since poured into this country, including a complete Hospital at Taplow, a coach for the Princess Christian Hospital train, 20 motor ambulances for the Front, gifts of money to the British Red Cross of about £15,000 and many thousand packages 326 THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW of comforts and clothing, the work of Canadian women. 26) that "personal enquiry made in France indicates situation misrepre- sented. Cannot approve of methods suggested for distribution of supplies." Late in January Lieut.-Col. Sixty-six Red Cross nurses and fifty male attendants had been sent overseas by the Society. Arrests were frequent for aiding enemy aliens to escape across the border; a certain proportion of German missioners, ministers and teachers, who had originally come from the States, were un- doubtedly seditious in an indirect, intangible and yet injurious way; at Luseland, Sask., a Lutheran minister named Stitzer was arrested on Aug.

"For the coming year ,000,000 would be required and by Christmas the monthly expenditure would be about 0,000." It was officially announced on Oct. 1st a cam- paign would commence for ,500,000 in popular contributions and that the amount of estimated expenditure in each Province for the year beginning Sept. To-day, there are 25,000 families, comprising, it is estimated, 80,000 individuals, dependent upon the Patriotic Fund. Employees' one-day pay, ,912; a contribution of ,000 from the C. The i balance of the Boer War Patriotic Fund, ,972, was turned over to this organization. It was constituted as a branch of the International Red Cross Society, recognized by all civilized nations as the Society for collecting money and supplies in time of war for the relief of sick and wounded soldiers and sailors and of prisoners of war ; it co-operated with the Army Medi- cal Services by collecting supplementary supplies for the military hospitals, for use when a great battle should exhaust the ordinary supplies; it provided additional motor ambulances, field kitchens and hospital trains; it undertook the special care and equipment of the Duchess of Connaught Hospital at Cliveden with its 1,000 beds. During 1915 sup- plies in large amounts were forwarded from Canada and, fort- nightly, there went from. The Report of the Treasurer (Colonel Mason) up to Patriotic Organizations and War Contributions 325 this date showed a total of 9,170. ' ' As time passed, however, Germans were gradually eliminated from concerns de- pendent upon popular support; the National Club, Toronto, on May 12, passed a Resolution declaring that ''it was repugnant that any member of the Club of German or Austrian extraction, not thoroughly loyal to Britain, should remain a member, and that the Directors should take such steps as they deem necessary in the case of members in doubt, and exclude them if they could not give satisfactory evidence of their loyalty to the British Empire;" in Vancouver Baron C. He was found to hold a German passport and to have the military rank of Captain. 1st, that there were 1,300 Germans in his town with a number of old German soldiers, that it was the heart of an organized spy system connected with United States Germans, and that the local Deutsche Post was strongly pro-Ger- man ; in Vancouver Baron Alvo Von Alvensleben, one-time resident, financier and millionaire, had his affairs in liquidation during the year and looked after them from Seattle while his name figured in current United States investigations as of the "inner circle" of German- American interests and plans; in Toronto on Oct. Bridge, Vancouver, with 0,000 damage and of the Connaught Bridge there, which had cost 0,000, was alleged to have been caused by enemy* incendiaries.

Only ten municipal- ities in Saskatchewan had not organized. The response from Ontario County councils had been splendid, many of them increasing their original contributions. Ames had been knighted some time before) stated that every returned soldier of good record was given a button by the Fund Committee and that this was highly valued. Large, however, as this sum appears, it has not greatly exceeded current demands and, if peace were declared in the immediate future, the entire surplus on hand would be required before all the men of the Expeditionary Force could again return home. received through the Mani- toba Fund and its special grant of 0,000; the Royal Academy of Art, ,514, and the Canadian Civil Service collection of ,777 (exclusive of the Intercolonial and Mounted Police. Hodgetts, m.d., was the Commissioner in Lon- don and Lady Drummond was at the head of an aid and informa- 324 THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW tion department associated with the general work. As to the latter they already had contri- buted 8 for the use of the Canadian forces and 12 to the British Red Cross. 31, 1915 — the following donations had been received : Ontario 7,204.40 Nova Scotia ,744. In the Montreal Star of May 14 appeared an appeal for contributions signed by Mrs. German waiters were largely employed well into the year at various important hotels where, of course, they overheard many things which might have been important to the enemy; Toronto listened to- German music even while, as the local French Consul put it "the shrieks of tor- tured Belgium drowned the strains of the piano. Mundheim, the much- discussed German Manager of the Cement Products Co., residing in Quebec City, controlling large cement plants on the Island of Orleans, and openly professing German views, was finally arrested on May 20 and interned.

Two introductory chapters contextualize this book and offer a traditional narrative of political and military history for 49-48 BCE.

There follow seven chapters that are dedicated to each of the geographical theatres of civil war. (2000, Stanford University) is Adjunct professor at the Pontificia Università Gregoriana (Rome).

In Caesar's Civil War: Historical Reality and Fabrication, Westall combines literary analysis of Caesar’s Bellum Civile with a concern for the socio-economic history of the Roman empire.

The Bellum Gallicum and the Shakespearean play are better known, but Caesar’s partisan account of the Roman civil war culminating in the battle of Pharsalus offers a historical text of perennial interest and relevance.

This would, however, only mean

Only ten municipal- ities in Saskatchewan had not organized. The response from Ontario County councils had been splendid, many of them increasing their original contributions. Ames had been knighted some time before) stated that every returned soldier of good record was given a button by the Fund Committee and that this was highly valued. Large, however, as this sum appears, it has not greatly exceeded current demands and, if peace were declared in the immediate future, the entire surplus on hand would be required before all the men of the Expeditionary Force could again return home. received through the Mani- toba Fund and its special grant of $100,000; the Royal Academy of Art, $10,514, and the Canadian Civil Service collection of $40,777 (exclusive of the Intercolonial and Mounted Police. Hodgetts, m.d., was the Commissioner in Lon- don and Lady Drummond was at the head of an aid and informa- 324 THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW tion department associated with the general work. As to the latter they already had contri- buted 8 for the use of the Canadian forces and 12 to the British Red Cross. 31, 1915 — the following donations had been received : Ontario $707,204.40 Nova Scotia $23,744. In the Montreal Star of May 14 appeared an appeal for contributions signed by Mrs. German waiters were largely employed well into the year at various important hotels where, of course, they overheard many things which might have been important to the enemy; Toronto listened to- German music even while, as the local French Consul put it "the shrieks of tor- tured Belgium drowned the strains of the piano. Mundheim, the much- discussed German Manager of the Cement Products Co., residing in Quebec City, controlling large cement plants on the Island of Orleans, and openly professing German views, was finally arrested on May 20 and interned. Two introductory chapters contextualize this book and offer a traditional narrative of political and military history for 49-48 BCE.There follow seven chapters that are dedicated to each of the geographical theatres of civil war. (2000, Stanford University) is Adjunct professor at the Pontificia Università Gregoriana (Rome).In Caesar's Civil War: Historical Reality and Fabrication, Westall combines literary analysis of Caesar’s Bellum Civile with a concern for the socio-economic history of the Roman empire.The Bellum Gallicum and the Shakespearean play are better known, but Caesar’s partisan account of the Roman civil war culminating in the battle of Pharsalus offers a historical text of perennial interest and relevance. This would, however, only mean $1 per head of the popula- tion for the people of Canada, and it is little indeed to ask of those who remain at home in comparison with the sacrifice in life and limb of those who are fighting in defence of the Nation. On the other hand 18 Ontario counties contributed pledges of monthly pay- ments totalling $191,400; 18 Canadian cities, through their Coun- cils, voted grants totalling $435,300. Money also was required and obtained to pay for the services of trained nurses and orderlies in special- co-operation with the St. While this general work was going on 300 new branches had been organized in Canada with a total of 484 at the close of the year, together with a large number of auxiliary societies in places too small to establish branches; a monthly Bulletin of information and suggestion was issued with 200,000 copies of pamphlets along similar lines; arrangements were made with the Railways and Express Companies under which nearly all Red Cross supplies, clothing, etc., were carried free — constituting a generous contribution in bulk to the funds of the Society; to the Duchess of Connaught Hospital, Cliveden, Lieut.-Col. Colonel Ryerson, the President — afterwards created Surgeon- General — spent two months during the summer in Britain and France observing the work and studying conditions. are giving to the sick and w^ounded a degree of prompt attention and pro- fessional skill never before exhibited in war. They obtained premises and personally promised the equipment and cost of alterations, while Mrs. These men were associated in a German financial plan to make the Isle of Orleans a sort of rival, as a port and travellers ' resort, to Quebec. Of these 1,100 men who left Canada for England in September, 1914, not more than ten per cent, had been bom in Canada but, all were Canadian in spirit and many in home ties while holding fast to their love for the soil of Britain and the tradi- tions of their race.

||

Only ten municipal- ities in Saskatchewan had not organized. The response from Ontario County councils had been splendid, many of them increasing their original contributions. Ames had been knighted some time before) stated that every returned soldier of good record was given a button by the Fund Committee and that this was highly valued. Large, however, as this sum appears, it has not greatly exceeded current demands and, if peace were declared in the immediate future, the entire surplus on hand would be required before all the men of the Expeditionary Force could again return home. received through the Mani- toba Fund and its special grant of $100,000; the Royal Academy of Art, $10,514, and the Canadian Civil Service collection of $40,777 (exclusive of the Intercolonial and Mounted Police. Hodgetts, m.d., was the Commissioner in Lon- don and Lady Drummond was at the head of an aid and informa- 324 THE CANADIAN ANNUAL REVIEW tion department associated with the general work. As to the latter they already had contri- buted 8 for the use of the Canadian forces and 12 to the British Red Cross. 31, 1915 — the following donations had been received : Ontario $707,204.40 Nova Scotia $23,744. In the Montreal Star of May 14 appeared an appeal for contributions signed by Mrs. German waiters were largely employed well into the year at various important hotels where, of course, they overheard many things which might have been important to the enemy; Toronto listened to- German music even while, as the local French Consul put it "the shrieks of tor- tured Belgium drowned the strains of the piano. Mundheim, the much- discussed German Manager of the Cement Products Co., residing in Quebec City, controlling large cement plants on the Island of Orleans, and openly professing German views, was finally arrested on May 20 and interned.

Two introductory chapters contextualize this book and offer a traditional narrative of political and military history for 49-48 BCE.

There follow seven chapters that are dedicated to each of the geographical theatres of civil war. (2000, Stanford University) is Adjunct professor at the Pontificia Università Gregoriana (Rome).

In Caesar's Civil War: Historical Reality and Fabrication, Westall combines literary analysis of Caesar’s Bellum Civile with a concern for the socio-economic history of the Roman empire.

The Bellum Gallicum and the Shakespearean play are better known, but Caesar’s partisan account of the Roman civil war culminating in the battle of Pharsalus offers a historical text of perennial interest and relevance.

This would, however, only mean $1 per head of the popula- tion for the people of Canada, and it is little indeed to ask of those who remain at home in comparison with the sacrifice in life and limb of those who are fighting in defence of the Nation. On the other hand 18 Ontario counties contributed pledges of monthly pay- ments totalling $191,400; 18 Canadian cities, through their Coun- cils, voted grants totalling $435,300. Money also was required and obtained to pay for the services of trained nurses and orderlies in special- co-operation with the St. While this general work was going on 300 new branches had been organized in Canada with a total of 484 at the close of the year, together with a large number of auxiliary societies in places too small to establish branches; a monthly Bulletin of information and suggestion was issued with 200,000 copies of pamphlets along similar lines; arrangements were made with the Railways and Express Companies under which nearly all Red Cross supplies, clothing, etc., were carried free — constituting a generous contribution in bulk to the funds of the Society; to the Duchess of Connaught Hospital, Cliveden, Lieut.-Col. Colonel Ryerson, the President — afterwards created Surgeon- General — spent two months during the summer in Britain and France observing the work and studying conditions. are giving to the sick and w^ounded a degree of prompt attention and pro- fessional skill never before exhibited in war. They obtained premises and personally promised the equipment and cost of alterations, while Mrs. These men were associated in a German financial plan to make the Isle of Orleans a sort of rival, as a port and travellers ' resort, to Quebec. Of these 1,100 men who left Canada for England in September, 1914, not more than ten per cent, had been bom in Canada but, all were Canadian in spirit and many in home ties while holding fast to their love for the soil of Britain and the tradi- tions of their race.

per head of the popula- tion for the people of Canada, and it is little indeed to ask of those who remain at home in comparison with the sacrifice in life and limb of those who are fighting in defence of the Nation. On the other hand 18 Ontario counties contributed pledges of monthly pay- ments totalling 1,400; 18 Canadian cities, through their Coun- cils, voted grants totalling 5,300. Money also was required and obtained to pay for the services of trained nurses and orderlies in special- co-operation with the St. While this general work was going on 300 new branches had been organized in Canada with a total of 484 at the close of the year, together with a large number of auxiliary societies in places too small to establish branches; a monthly Bulletin of information and suggestion was issued with 200,000 copies of pamphlets along similar lines; arrangements were made with the Railways and Express Companies under which nearly all Red Cross supplies, clothing, etc., were carried free — constituting a generous contribution in bulk to the funds of the Society; to the Duchess of Connaught Hospital, Cliveden, Lieut.-Col. Colonel Ryerson, the President — afterwards created Surgeon- General — spent two months during the summer in Britain and France observing the work and studying conditions. are giving to the sick and w^ounded a degree of prompt attention and pro- fessional skill never before exhibited in war. They obtained premises and personally promised the equipment and cost of alterations, while Mrs. These men were associated in a German financial plan to make the Isle of Orleans a sort of rival, as a port and travellers ' resort, to Quebec. Of these 1,100 men who left Canada for England in September, 1914, not more than ten per cent, had been bom in Canada but, all were Canadian in spirit and many in home ties while holding fast to their love for the soil of Britain and the tradi- tions of their race.